IBN ZADOK, SOLOMON


IBN ZADOK, SOLOMON
IBN ZADOK, SOLOMON (Don Çulema; also called Abbās Rabīʿa Solomon Ibn Zadok; d. 1274), prominent courtier in the service of Alfonso X (the Wise) of Castile in Toledo. Solomon, who had previously served Ferdinand III, was employed by Alfonso on diplomatic missions, and as chief collector of the revenues of the kingdom. His command of languages was impressive. He received from the king large estates in and around Seville. The poet Todros b. Judah ha-Levi abulafia praised Solomon lavishly in terms rarely applied to court Jews of the day. Solomon maintained synagogues and poorhouses and was highly esteemed by the community. After his death, his property in and around Seville was confiscated and given to the cathedral of the city. Abulafia wrote eulogies on his death. His son ISAAC IBN ZADOK (or Abu Ibrāhīm Isaac; d. 1280), who moved from Seville to Toledo, was chief farmer of the taxes of the kingdom of Castile during the reign of Alfonso X. He is referred to in non-Jewish documents as Don Çag de la Maleha. In 1276, he signed various leases and contracts for supplies to the government, including the tax-farming rights for the whole kingdom and for the debts on uncollected taxes. Don Isaac enforced in 1276 Alfonso's policy of exempting members of the Mesta (organization of the sheep breeders) from tolls formerly paid to the towns. Two years later, Alfonso asked Don Isaac to send funds for the army which was encamped near Algeciras, but the Infante Sancho intercepted the money, and the troops were endangered. Alfonso revenged himself on the tax farmers, three of whom were arrested. Don Isaac was condemned to death by hanging. He was probably executed before his father's death. Don Isaac was a generous patron of Todros Abulafia, who refers to him as the "savior of his generation." Abulafia also composed eulogies on the death of Isaac. Recently the identity of Isaac son of Solomon ibn Zadok and Don Çag de la Maleha has been challenged. It has been suggested that Don Çag de la Maleha was another Jewish courtier whose father was Meir ibn Susan. Both served Alfonso X of Castile. It was Çag de la Maleha who was the tax collector while Isaac ibn Zadok was the patron of Abulafia. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Baer, Urkunden, 2 (1936), 68–69; Baer, Spain, 1 (1961), 124; idem, in: D. Yellin (ed.), Gan ha-Meshalim ve-ha-Ḥidot, 1 (1932), 140–63; 2 (1936), xl–xlii; idem, in: Zion, 2 (1938), 22–23; J. Klein, The Mesta (1920); A. Ballesteros Beratta, Alfonso X el Sabio (1963), 917–20, 927; N. Roth, in: Sefarad, 43 (1983), 75–85. (Yom Tov Assis (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • PIYYUT — (Heb. פִּיּוּט; plural: piyyutim; from the Greek ποιητής), a lyrical composition intended to embellish an obligatory prayer or any other religious ceremony, communal or private. In a wider sense, piyyut is the totality of compositions composed in …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI — (1247–after 1298), Hebrew poet. He was born in Toledo and spent most of his life there. Todros was a member of a well known family of the city, although his kinships with other Abulafias, such as meir abulafia , or with the Rav, todros ben joseph …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BANKING AND BANKERS — Antiquity There is little likelihood that financial transactions played a prominent role in the pre Exilic epoch in Ereẓ Israel; according to the ethos of Jewish society, then founded on a pronounced agrarian structure, lending was part of the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • SALT TRADE AND INDUSTRY — Jews took a considerable part, from at least the tenth century, in the salt trade and its extraction – which were generally state monopolies – in a number of European countries, principally as lessees of the mines. In the main areas of salt… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • CARMONA — CARMONA, city in Andalusia, S.W. Spain. Like Cádiz, Carmona has been identified by some historians with the biblical tarshish . A Jewish quarter near the southern wall of the city existed during the period of Muslim rule. It was located west of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • biblical literature — Introduction       four bodies of written works: the Old Testament writings according to the Hebrew canon; intertestamental works, including the Old Testament Apocrypha; the New Testament writings; and the New Testament Apocrypha.       The Old… …   Universalium

  • GAON — (pl. Geonim), formal title of the heads of the academies of Sura and Pumbedita in Babylonia. The geonim were recognized by the Jews as the highest authority of instruction from the end of the sixth century or somewhat later to the middle of the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • KABBALAH — This entry is arranged according to the following outline: introduction general notes terms used for kabbalah the historical development of the kabbalah the early beginnings of mysticism and esotericism apocalyptic esotericism and merkabah… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MATHEMATICS — Bible The Bible does not deal directly with proper mathematical subjects; however there are some parts that do relate indirectly to different mathematical topics. These are widely discussed by the various commentators on the Bible and Talmud: the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • PENTATEUCH — This article is arranged according to the following outline: introduction definition outline contents and structure the primeval history the patriarchs the exodus Sinai/Horeb Covenant and Laws the journey Moses Farewell the authors doublets and… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism